Cultural Trauma


Types of Trauma

"Historical trauma is cumulative emotional and psychological wounding over the lifespan and across generations, emanating from massive group trauma" (1985-88)-- The Return to the Sacred Path: Reflections on the Development of Historical Trauma Healing Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart, PhD, Associate Professor of Psychiatry/Director, Native American & Disparities Research Center for Rural & Community Behavioral Health.


Joo-Castro L, Emerson A. Understanding Historical Trauma for the Holistic Care of Indigenous Populations: A Scoping Review. J Holist Nurs. 2021;39(3):285-305. doi:10.1177/0898010120979135


Patel RA, Nagata DK. Historical Trauma and Descendants' Well-Being. AMA J Ethics. 2021;23(6):E487-E493. Published 2021 Jun 1. doi:10.1001/amajethics.2021.487

Vicarious trauma is, "The emotional residue of exposure to traumatic stories and experiences of others through work; witnessing fear, pain, and terror that others have experienced; a pre-occupation with horrific stories told to the professional (American Counseling Association, 2016)
▪ Sometimes referred to as “secondary traumatization, secondary stress disorder, or insidious trauma” (ACA, 2016)
▪ Included in the DSM-5 as part of the cluster of “trauma and stressor-related disorders”
                         - from Fact Sheet: Vicarious Trauma, from the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation

Multigenerational (aka intergenerational) trauma is "a phenomenon in which the descendants of a person who has experienced a terrifying event show adverse emotional and behavioral reactions to the event that are similar to those of the person himself or herself."

       - from the APA Dictionary of Psychology

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