Cultural Trauma

Cultural Somatics

Cultural Somatics

Levine, P. A., & Mate, G. (2010). In an Unspoken Voice: How the Body Releases Trauma and Restores Goodness (1st ed.). North Atlantic Books.


van der Kolk, M.D., Bessel. The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma. Penguin Books. 2015.

Menakem, R. My Grandmother’s Hands: Racialized Trauma and the Mending of Our Bodies and Hearts. Central Recovery Press. 2017.


Levine, P. A., & Mate, G. (2010). In an Unspoken Voice: How the Body Releases Trauma and Restores Goodness (1st ed.). North Atlantic Books.


Levine, Peter A., and Ann Frederick. Waking the Tiger: Healing Trauma. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 1997.


Presumey-Leblanc G. Rewriting the Present: Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome as a Foundation for Social Determinants of Health. Order No. 27834569 ed. Boston University; 2020.


Strachan TBC. Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome, Anxiety, and Depression in African American Emerging Adults. Order No. 27668738 ed. The University of Iowa; 2019.


Burrowes, Akinlana, "Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome A Literature Review on African American Community Healing and Expressive Arts Therapy" (2019). Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses. 200.


Halloran MJ. African American Health and Posttraumatic Slave Syndrome: A Terror Management Theory Account. Journal of Black Studies. 2019;50(1):45-65. doi:10.1177/0021934718803737


Post- Traumatic Slave Syndrome (video)- "Nov 8, 2019 How is Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome different from PTSD? Dr. Joy DeGruy explains how trauma can be passed on generation after generation."


Jackson L, Jackson Z, Jackson F (2018) Intergenerational Resilience in Response to the Stress and Trauma of Enslavement and Chronic Exposure to Institutionalized Racism. J Clin Epigenet 4:15. doi: 10.21767/2472-1158.100100.


a DeGruy, Joy. Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome: America's Legacy of Enduring Injury and Healing. Joy Degruy Publications, Inc. 2017.


Sule E, Sutton RM, Jones D, Moore R, Igbo I, Jones LA. The Past Does Matter: a Nursing Perspective on Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome (PTSS) [published online ahead of print, 2017 Jan 11]. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2017;10.1007/s40615-016-0328-7. doi:10.1007/s40615-016-0328-7


PhD, A. M. (2017). Urban Trauma: A Legacy of Racism. Publish Your Purpose Press.


Jennifer A. Coleman (2016) "Racial Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military Personnel: Intergenerational Transmission of Trauma as a Theoretical Lens, Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma". 25:6, 561-579, DOI: 10.1080/10926771.2016.1157842


Graff, G. (2014). "The intergenerational trauma of slavery and its aftermath"The Journal of Psychohistory, 41(3), 181.


Dekel, R. and Goldblatt, H. (2008), "Is There Intergenerational Transmission of Trauma? The Case of Combat Veterans' Children". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 78: 281-289. 






Youssef NA. Potential Societal and Cultural Implications of Transgenerational Epigenetic Methylation of Trauma and PTSD: Pathology or Resilience?. Yale J Biol Med. 2022;95(1):171-174. Published 2022 Mar 31


Jawaid A, Jehle KL, Mansuy IM. Impact of Parental Exposure on Offspring Health in Humans. Trends Genet. 2021;37(4):373-388. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2020.10.006


Lehrner A, Yehuda R. Cultural trauma and epigenetic inheritance. Dev Psychopathol. 2018;30(5):1763-1777. doi:10.1017/S0954579418001153





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