"Health disparities" refer to the negative differences in health status and outcomes among different population groups; e.g., race/ethnicity, economic status, education level, and sex. This guide was created in order to provide information about the histo


Health Disparities

Historical Context

University of Virginia and Central Virginia History


Dorr, Gregory Michael. "Assuring America's Place in the Sun: Ivey Foreman Lewis and the Teaching of Eugenics at the University of Virginia, 1915-1953." The Journal of Southern History. Vol. 66, No. 2. May, 2000. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2587659?origin=crossref&seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents

Dorr, Gregory Michael. Segregation's Science: Eugenics and Society In Virginia. University of Virginia Press, 2008. https://search.lib.virginia.edu/catalog/u6212829 

Lombardo, Paul A., and Gregory M. Dorr. "Eugenics, Medical Education, and the Public Health Service: Another Perspective On the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment." Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol. 80, no. 2, 2006, p. 291. https://search.lib.virginia.edu/articles/article?id=edsjsr%3Aedsjsr.44448396 

Moll, Wilhelm, and Todd LSavitt. The Early Years of the University of Virginia Hospital: An Analysis of Patient's Records. Virginia Medical Monthly, Vol. 102, July and September, 1975. https://search.lib.virginia.edu/catalog/u3654586 

Reynolds, P. Preston. “Eugenics at the University of Virginia and its Legacy in Health Disparities.” Charlottesville 2017: The Legacy of Race and Inequity. Nelson, Louis P, and Claudrena N Harold, editors. University of Virginia Press, 2018. https://search.lib.virginia.edu/catalog/u7630636 

Savitt, Todd L. “The Second Reported Case of Sickle Cell Anemia”. Virginia Medical Quarterly. 1997;124(2):84‐92. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.l0063526396&view=1up&seq=442&q1=savitt https://search.lib.virginia.edu/catalog/u3593852 

Savitt, Todd L. Medicine and Slavery: The Diseases and Health Care of Blacks in Antebellum VirginiaUrbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978. https://search.lib.virginia.edu/catalog/u3601602 

Tucker, Victoria, Barbra Mann Wall, Evelyn Gardner, and Clariece Coles Harris, panelists. Marcia Day Childress, moderator. "Jackson P. Burley High School's Segregated Black Licensed Practical Nursing Program." Medical Center Hour Lecture Series. Charlottesville, VA. October 2, 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JjDuYY-M3Ks

Von Daacke, Kirt. “Anatomical Theater.” McInnis, Maurie Dee, and Louis P Nelson, editors. Educated In Tyranny: Slavery At Thomas Jefferson's University. University of Virginia Press, 2019. https://search.lib.virginia.edu/catalog/u8198514 

United States History

Baker, Robert B., et al. "Creating a Segregated Medical Profession: African American Physicians and Organized Medicine, 1846-1910." Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 101, no. 6, 2009, pp. 501 - 512. https://www-clinicalkey-com.proxy01.its.virginia.edu/service/content/pdf/watermarked/1-s2.0-S0027968415309354.pdf?locale=en_US&searchIndex= 


Baker, Robert B., et al. “Segregation, Civil Rights, and Health Disparities: The Legacy of African American Physicians and Organized Medicine, 1910-1968." Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 101, no. 6, 2009: 513-527https://www-clinicalkey-com.proxy01.its.virginia.edu/#!/content/journal/1-s2.0-S0027968415309366 


Byrd, W. Michael, and Linda A Clayton. An American Health Dilemma. Routledge, 2000. https://search.lib.virginia.edu/catalog/u3566532 


Gamble, Vanessa N. Making a Place for Ourselves: The Black Hospital Movement, 1920-1945, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.  https://search.lib.virginia.edu/catalog/u5967231


Hammonds, Evelynn M., and Susan M. Reverby. "Toward a Historically Informed Analysis of Racial Health Disparities Since 1619." American Journal of Public Health, vol. 109, no. 10, 2019, pp. 1348 - 1349. https://search.lib.virginia.edu/articles/article?id=bth%3A138432104


Quadagno, Jill S. One Nation, Uninsured: Why the U.S. Has No National Health Insurance. Oxford University Press, 2006. https://search.lib.virginia.edu/catalog/u5663896  


Wailoo, Keith. Dying In the City of the Blues: Sickle Cell Anemia and the Politics of Race and Health. University of North Carolina Press, 2001. https://search.lib.virginia.edu/catalog/u3718963 


Wailoo, Keith. Dying In the City of the Blues: Sickle Cell Disease and the Politics of Health Care In the South. Claude Moore Health Sciences Library, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, 2000. https://search.lib.virginia.edu/catalog/u3656736 


Washington, Harriet A. Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Time to the Present. New York: Doubleday, 2006. https://search.lib.virginia.edu/catalog/u4454168


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