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Anti-Racist Resources

Medical and Nursing Education Literature

Education Scholarly Articles

Acholonu, R. G., Cook, T. E., Roswell, R. O., & Greene, R. E. (2020). Interrupting Microaggressions in Health Care Settings: A Guide for Teaching Medical  Students. MedEdPORTAL : The Journal of Teaching and Learning Resources, 16, 10969. https://doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10969

Acosta, D. A., & Skorton, D. J. (2021). Making “Good Trouble”: Time for Organized Medicine to Call for Racial Justice in  Medical Education and Health Care. The American Journal of Medicine, 134(10), 1203–1209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2021.04.034

Afolabi, T., Borowsky, H. M., Cordero, D. M., Paul, D. W. J., Said, J. T., Sandoval, R. S., Davis, D., Ölveczky, D., & Chatterjee, A. (2021). Student-Led Efforts to Advance Anti-Racist Medical Education. Academic Medicine : Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 96(6), 802–807. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000004043

Ali, S. (2022). Managing racism? Race equality and decolonial educational futures. The British Journal of Sociology. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12976

Anderson, N., Boatright, D., & Reisman, A. (2020). Blackface in White Space: Using Admissions to Address Racism in Medical Education. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 35(10), 3060–3062. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-06079-4

Asfaw, Z. K., & Barthelemy, E. J. (2022). Anti-racist Medical Education in the Transformation of Global Health. Tropical Doctor, 494755221077807. https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00494755221077807

Bell, B. (2021). White dominance in nursing education: A target for anti-racist efforts. Nursing Inquiry, 28(1), e12379. https://doi.org/10.1111/nin.12379

Bracken, P., Fernando, S., Alsaraf, S., Creed, M., Double, D., Gilberthorpe, T., Hassan, R., Jadhav, S., Jeyapaul, P., Kopua, D., Parsons, M., Rodger, J., Summerfield, D., Thomas, P., & Timimi, S. (2021). Decolonising the medical curriculum: Psychiatry faces particular challenges. Anthropology & Medicine, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/13648470.2021.1949892

Bradford, P. S., Akyeampong, D., Fleming, M. A., Dacus, A. R., Chhabra, A. B., & DeGeorge, B. R. (2021). Racial and Gender Discrimination in Hand Surgery Letters of Recommendation. Journal of Hand Surgery, 46(11), 998-1005.e2. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JHSA.2021.07.009

Bradford, P. S., Dacus, A. R., Chhabra, A. B., Butler, P. D., & DeGeorge, B. R. (2021). How to Be An Antiracist Hand Surgery Educator. Journal of Hand Surgery, 46(6), 507–511. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JHSA.2021.01.017

Buery-Joyner, S. D., Baecher-Lind, L., Clare, C. A., Hampton, B. S., Moxley, M. D., Ogunyemi, D., Pradhan, A. A., Madani Sims, S. M., Whetstone, S., Woodland, M. B., & Katz, N. T. (2022). Educational Guidelines for Diversity and Inclusion: Addressing Racism and Eliminating Biases in Medical Education. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2022.09.014

Byrd, J. N., Huynh, K. A., Aqeel, Z., & Chung, K. C. (2022). General surgery residency and action toward surgical equity: A scoping review of program websites. American Journal of Surgery. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2022.02.006

Calardo, S. J., Kou, M., Port, C., McKnight, N., Switzer, B. E., Halmon, K., Lobo, K., Benghanem, G., & Seo-Mayer, P. W. (2022). Realizing Inclusion and Systemic Equity in Medicine: Upstanding in the Medical Workplace (RISE UP)-an Antibias Curriculum. MedEdPORTAL : The Journal of Teaching and Learning Resources, 18, 11233. https://dx.doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.11233

Chakanyuka, C., Bacsu, J.-D. R., DesRoches, A., Dame, J., Carrier, L., Symenuk, P., O’Connell, M. E., Crowshoe, L., Walker, J., & Bourque Bearskin, L. (2022). Indigenous-specific cultural safety within health and dementia care: A scoping review of reviews. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 293, 114658. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114658

Chao, G. F., Zakrison, T. L., Oyetunji, S., Gaston-Hawkins, L., Sosa, J. A., Joseph, B., & Lindeman, B. (2022). Underrepresented in medicine: Making surgical training anti-racist. American Journal of Surgery. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2022.02.056

Cohen, A., Montez, K., Orr, C., Konrath, J., Oddiri, U., Russell, C. J., Gambill, L., Nesiama, J.-A., Chung, P. J., & McNeal-Trice, K. (2022). Changing Who Has a Seat and Voice at the Table: How the Academic Pediatric Association is Responding to Systemic Racism. Academic Pediatrics. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2022.01.002

Coleman, T. (2020). Anti-Racism in Nursing Education: Recommendations for Racial Justice Praxis. The Journal of Nursing Education, 59(11), 642–645. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20201020-08

Demopoulos, C. A., Kohli, R., Dhar, S., & Raju, K. (2022). Racial and oral health equity in dental school curricula. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 82 Suppl 1, 114–122. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphd.12516

Emery, E. H., Shaffer, J. D., McCormick, D., Zeidman, J., Geffen, S. R., Stojicic, P., Ganz, M., & Basu, G. (2022). Preparing Doctors in Training for Health Activist Roles: A Cross-Institutional Community Organizing Workshop for Incoming Medical Residents. MedEdPORTAL : The Journal of Teaching and Learning Resources, 18, 11208. https://dx.doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.11208

Ester, T. V., Smith, C. S., & Smith, P. D. (2022). Illuminating light in the darkness: Black/African-American men in dental education and strategies for change. Journal of Dental Education, 86(9), 1214–1222. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jdd.13065

Fleming, M. A., Scott, E. J., Bradford, P. S., Lattimore, C. M., Omesiete, W. I., Williams, C. A., Williams, M. D., & Martin, A. N. (2021). The Risk and Reward of Speaking Out for Racial Equity in Surgical Training. Journal of Surgical Education, 78(5), 1387–1392. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JSURG.2021.01.015

Foong, L. H. (2022). Anti-racism in the emergency department: Navigating clinician experiences of racism. Emergency Medicine Australasia : EMA, 34(1), 116–119. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1742-6723.13916

Fuentes-Afflick, E., & Dzau, V. J. (2022). Inclusion, Diversity, Equity, and Anti-Racism in Health and Science Professions: A Call to Action for Membership and Leadership Organizations. NAM Perspectives, 2022. https://dx.doi.org/10.31478/202205b

Gagliardi, J. P., Smith, C. M., Simmons, K. L., & Tweedy, D. S. (2022). Racial Justice Beyond the Curriculum: Aligning Systems of Care With Anti-Racist Instruction in Graduate Medical Education. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 14(4), 403–406. https://dx.doi.org/10.4300/JGME-D-22-00056.1

Garvey, A., Lynch, G., Mansour, M., Coyle, A., Gard, S., & Truglio, J. (2022). From Race to Racism: Teaching a Tool to Critically Appraise the Use of Race in Medical Research. MedEdPORTAL : The Journal of Teaching and Learning Resources, 18, 11210. https://dx.doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.11210

Godley, B. A., Dayal, D., Manekin, E., & Estroff, S. E. (2020). Toward an Anti-Racist Curriculum: Incorporating Art into Medical Education to  Improve Empathy and Structural Competency. Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, 7, 2382120520965246. https://doi.org/10.1177/2382120520965246

Golden, A. R., & Byrd, C. M. (2022). Examining Critical Reflection as a Mediator Between School Racial Climate Experiences and Anti-Racist Action. Journal of Research on Adolescence : The Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12778

Gouvea, J. S. (2022). Addressing Racism in Human Genetics and Genomics Education. CBE Life Sciences Education, 21(4), fe5. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.22-09-0188

Groner, L. K., Lee, M., Gil, H. D. J., Min, R. J., & Babagbemi, K. (2022). Hiding in plain sight: How incorporating honest discussion of racial and social (in)justice into medical education can inspire change. Clinical Imaging, 89, 37–42. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2022.04.018

Haeny, A. M., Holmes, S. C., & Williams, M. T. (2021). Applying Anti-racism to Clinical Care and Research. JAMA Psychiatry, 78(11), 1187–1188. https://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.2329

Hariharan, B., Quarshie, L. S., Amdahl, C., Winterburn, S., & Offiah, G. (2022). Experiencing racism within medical school curriculum: 2020 ICCH student symposium. Patient Education and Counseling, 105(7), 2599–2602. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2021.12.018

Holdren, S., Iwai, Y., Lenze, N. R., Weil, A. B., & Randolph, A. M. (2022). A Novel Narrative Medicine Approach to DEI Training for Medical School Faculty. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 1–10. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2022.2067165

Hubbard, A., Sudler, A., Alves-Bradford, J.-M. E., Trinh, N.-H., Emmerich, A. D., & Mangurian, C. (2022). Building a Diverse Psychiatric Workforce for the Future and Helping Them Thrive: Recommendations for Psychiatry Training Directors. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 45(2), 283–295. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2022.03.007

Huddle, T. S. (2022). Against the Turn to Critical Race Theory and “Anti-racism” in Academic Medicine. HEC Forum : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals’ Ethical and Legal Issues. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10730-022-09471-1

Iheduru-Anderson, K., Okoro, F. O., & Moore, S. S. (2022). Diversity and Inclusion or Tokens? A Qualitative Study of Black Women Academic Nurse Leaders in the United States. Global Qualitative Nursing Research, 9, 23333936211073116. https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23333936211073116

Jankowski, G. S. (2021). Students’ understanding and support for anti-racism in universities. The British Journal of Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12482

Karasik, R. J., & Kishimoto, K. (2020). Applying anti-racist pedagogy to teaching about work and retirement in the U.S. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701960.2020.1856831

Kristoffersson, E., & Hamberg, K. (2022). “I have to do twice as well”—Managing everyday racism in a Swedish medical school. BMC Medical Education, 22(1), 235. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-022-03262-5

Kuehnert, P., Fawcett, J., DePriest, K., Chinn, P., Cousin, L., Ervin, N., Flanagan, J., Fry-Bowers, E., Killion, C., Maliski, S., Maughan, E. D., Meade, C., Murray, T., Schenk, B., & Waite, R. (2022). Defining the social determinants of health for nursing action to achieve health equity: A consensus paper from the American Academy of Nursing. Nursing Outlook, 70(1), 10–27. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2021.08.003

Laake, J. H., Astvad, M., Bentsen, G., Escher, C., Haney, M., Hoffmann-Petersen, J., Hyllested, M., Junttila, E., Moller, M. H., Nellgard, P., Nyberg, A., Olkkola, K., Pedersen, S. K. A., Pischke, S. E., Reinikainen, M., Strand, K., Thorarensen, G., Thormar, K., & Tonnessen, T. I. (2022). A policy for diversity, equity, inclusion and anti-racism in the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (SSAI). Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 66(1), 141–144. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aas.13978

Lei, L., & Guo, S. (2022). Beyond multiculturalism: Revisioning a model of pandemic anti-racism education in post-Covid-19 Canada. International Journal of Anthropology and Ethnology, 6(1), 1. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41257-021-00060-7

MacDuffie, K. E., Patneaude, A., Bell, S., Adiele, A., Makhija, N., Wilfond, B., & Opel, D. (2022). Addressing racism in the healthcare encounter: The role of clinical ethics consultants. Bioethics. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bioe.13008

Marshall, C., Bakal, M., Deardorff, J., Pies, C., & Lu, M. C. (2022). Developing an Anti-Racist Foundations Course in MCH for MPH Students. Maternal and Child Health Journal. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-021-03285-2

Martinez, S., Araj, J., Reid, S., Rodriguez, J., Nguyen, M., Pinto, D. B., Young, P. Y., Ivey, A., Webber, A., & Mason, H. (2021). Allyship in Residency: An Introductory Module on Medical Allyship for Graduate Medical Trainees. MedEdPORTAL : The Journal of Teaching and Learning Resources, 17, 11200. https://dx.doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.11200

Neves da Silva, H. V., Heery, L. M., Cohen, W. R., Mahalingam, V. S., Adebiyi, O. A., Lee, R. S., Netsanet, A. N., Ogundipe, E. A., Dakhama, Y., Wang, M. L., Vrolijk, M. A., Garcia, M. W., Ward-Gaines, J., & Neumeier, A. T. (2022). What Happened and Why: Responding to Racism, Discrimination, and Microaggressions in the Clinical Learning Environment. MedEdPORTAL : The Journal of Teaching and Learning Resources, 18(101714390), 11280. https://doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.11280

Obuobi, S., Vela, M. B., & Callender, B. (2021). Comics as anti-racist education and advocacy. Lancet (London, England), 397(10285), 1615–1617. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00940-5

Ojo, A., Singer, M. R., Morales, B., Merz, A. A., Molina, R. L., Pelletier, A., Carmen, A., Moreno, M. A., Lopez-Carmen, V. A., Ye, S. Y., Starosta, A., Rowley, J., Yin, S. H., Amanuel, H., Radford, C. C., Schwartz, L. N., Wijangco, I., Jowell, A. R., Schaefer, K. M., … Bartz, D. (2022). Reproductive Justice: A Case-Based, Interactive Curriculum. MedEdPORTAL : The Journal of Teaching and Learning Resources, 18(101714390), 11275. https://doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.11275

Orr, C. J., Montez, K. G., Omoruyi, E. A., Loyal, J., Konrath, J., Olsson, J. M., Long, M., Krugman, S., Selbst, S., Bostwick, S., Chung, P. J., & McNeal-Trice, K. (2022). Implementing What We Preach: Anti-Racist Recommendations from the Academic Pediatric Association Leadership Development Nomination Committee Task Force. Academic Pediatrics. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2022.01.004

Pattani, R., Burns, K. E. A., Lorens, E., Straus, S. E., & Hawker, G. A. (2022). Effect of race, gender identity, and their intersection on career satisfaction: A cross-sectional survey of academic physicians. Medical Teacher, 1–8. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2021.2014799

Piper, K. N., Elder, A., Renfro, T., Iwan, A., Ramirez, M., & Woods-Jaeger, B. (2021). The Importance of Anti-Racism in Trauma-Informed Family Engagement. Administration and Policy in Mental Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-021-01147-1

Purnell, T. S., Bignall, O. N. R. I., Norris, K. C., & American Society of Nephrology Health Care Justice Committee Education Work Group. (2022). Centering Anti-Racism and Social Justice in Nephrology Education to Advance Kidney Health Equity. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN, 33(11), 1981–1984. https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2022040432

Purtell, R., Tam, R. P., Avondet, E., & Gradick, K. (2022). We are part of the problem: The role of children’s hospitals in addressing health inequity. Hospital Practice (1995). https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21548331.2022.2032072

Rainer, T., Zheng, D. J., Winn, A. S., Michelson, C. D., Sectish, T. C., & Cheston, C. C. (2022). Becoming an Anti-Racist Training Program: A single residency’s year of growth. The Journal of Pediatrics. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.03.028

Rosario, C., Al Amin, S., & Parker, C. (2022). [Un]Forgetting History: Preparing Public Health Professionals to Address Structural Racism. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice : JPHMP, 28(Suppl 1), S74–S81. https://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHH.0000000000001432

Salo, S. K., Marceaux, J. C., McCoy, K. J. M., & Hilsabeck, R. C. (2022). Removing the noose item from the Boston naming test: A step toward antiracist neuropsychological assessment. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 36(2), 311–326. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2021.1933187

Sanders, J. J., Gray, T. F., Sihlongonyane, B., Durieux, B. N., & Graham, L. (2021). A Framework for Anti-Racist Publication in Palliative Care: Structures, Processes,  and Outcomes. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2021.10.001

Sanky, C., Bai, H., He, C., & Appel, J. M. (2022). Medical students’ knowledge of race-related history reveals areas for improvement in achieving health equity. BMC Medical Education, 22(1), 612. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-022-03650-x

Scott, P. O., Catlett, J. L. 2nd, Seah, C., & Leisman, S. (2022). A Framework for Antiracist Curriculum Changes in Nephrology Education. Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, 29(6), 493–500. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ackd.2022.08.003

Seiler, J., Hajat, A., Khosropour, C. M., Guthrie, B. L., & Balkus, J. E. (2022). A Novel Curriculum Review Process to Initiate the Incorporation of Anti-Racist Principles Into Epidemiology Course Work. American Journal of Epidemiology. https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwac105

Shankar, M., Henderson, K., Garcia, R., Li, G., Titer, K., Acholonu, R. G., Essien, U. R., Brown-Johnson, C., Cox, J., Shaw, J. G., Haverfield, M. C., Taylor, K., Israni, S. T., & Zulman, D. (2022). Presence 5 for Racial Justice Workshop: Fostering Dialogue Across Medical Education to Disrupt Anti-Black Racism in Clinical Encounters. MedEdPORTAL : The Journal of Teaching and Learning Resources, 18, 11227. https://dx.doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.11227

Simpson, T., Evans, J., Goepfert, A., & Elopre, L. (2022). Implementing a graduate medical education anti-racism workshop at an academic university in the Southern USA. Medical Education Online, 27(1), 1981803. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10872981.2021.1981803

Sotto-Santiago, S., Sharp, S., Mac, J., Messmore, N., Haywood, A., Tyson, M., & Yi, V. (2021). Reclaiming the mission of academic medicine: An examination of institutional responses to (anti)racism. AEM Education and Training, 5(Suppl 1), S33–S43. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aet2.10668

Sturges, D., Patterson, D. G., Bennett, I. M., & Cawse-Lucas, J. (2022). Can Family Medicine’s Counterculture History Help Shape an Anti-Racist Future?. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine : JABFM, 35(1), 169–172. https://dx.doi.org/10.3122/jabfm.2022.01.210295

Sukhera, J., & Palaniyappan, L. (2022). Walking the walk: Advice for anti-racist academic leaders. Psychiatry Research, 308, 114343. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114343

Van Bewer, V., Woodgate, R. L., Martin, D., & Deer, F. (2021). An Indigenous and arts-influenced framework for anti-racist practice in nursing  education. Journal of Professional Nursing : Official Journal of the American Association of  Colleges of Nursing, 37(1), 65–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2020.11.002

Vass, A., & Adams, K. (2021). Educator perceptions on teaching Indigenous health: Racism, privilege and  self-reflexivity. Medical Education, 55(2), 213–221. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.14344

Vega Perez, R. D., Hayden, L., Mesa, J., Bickell, N., Abner, P., Richardson, L. D., & Ngai, K. M. (2022). Improving Patient Race and Ethnicity Data Capture to Address Health Disparities: A Case Study From a Large Urban Health System. Cureus, 14(1), e20973. https://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.20973

Walker, V. P., Hodges, L., Perkins, M., Sim, M., & Harris, C. (2022). Taking the VITALS to Interrupt Microaggressions. MedEdPORTAL : The Journal of Teaching and Learning Resources, 18, 11202. https://dx.doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.11202

White, G. E., Proulx, C. N., Morone, N. E., Murrell, A. J., & Rubio, D. M. (2021). Recruiting underrepresented individuals in a double pandemic: Lessons learned in a randomized control trial. Journal of Clinical and Translational Science, 5(1), e185. https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cts.2021.843

Williamson, F. A., Sharp, S. N., Hills, G. D., Dilly, C. K., & Nabhan, Z. M. (2022). Leveraging Resident-As-Teacher Training for Health Equity Education: A Transformative Approach. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, dx5, 8910884, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2022.2147529

Zaidi, Z., Partman, I. M., Whitehead, C. R., Kuper, A., & Wyatt, T. R. (2021). Contending with Our Racial Past in Medical Education: A Foucauldian Perspective. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 33(4), 453–462. https://doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2021.1945929

Zhou, B., & Louie, A. (2022). Beyond Humility: Empowering Minoritized Learners Through Culturally Reflective Medicine. Academic Medicine : Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges. https://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000004744

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